Oil Painting Artists Index


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Johan Richter
Johan Richter
(1665 - 1745) was a Baroque painter, born in Sweden, but painting mainly landscapes or veduta of Venice. Richter was born in Stockholm and died in Venice. He was known to be active in Venice by 1717. He was influenced by Luca Carlevarijs.
 
Johann anton ramboux
Johann anton ramboux
German, 1790 - 1866 German painter, draughtsman and museum curator. He was taught drawing by Jean-Henri Gilson (1741-1809), before he went to Paris for further training in the studio of Jacques-Louis David. In 1812 he returned to Trier, painting portraits until 1815, when he spent a year at the Akademie der Bildenden K?nste in Munich. In 1816 he went to Rome, where he was part of the Nazarene circle without becoming a member of the Lukasbr?der. Close association with these artists, notably Peter Cornelius, Carl Philipp Fohr and Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, had a more lasting influence on Ramboux's artistic development than his earlier studies with David
 
Johann Baptist Reiter
Johann Baptist Reiter
painted Slumbering Woman in 1849
 
Johann Christian Reinhart
Johann Christian Reinhart
German , 1761-1847 He revealed an interest in art while still at school and, though he began to study theology in Leipzig in 1778, he soon transferred to the private art academy of Adam Friedrich Oeser (1717-99). Here he made copies of the work of his teacher and drew after plaster casts of antique statues. The Liber Veritatis, a collection of 200 drawings by Claude Lorrain, was also used as a model and had an important influence on him. In 1783 he went to Dresden where he was especially attracted to the Dutch landscape paintings in the Gem?ldegalerie. In 1785 Reinhart returned to Leipzig where he made the acquaintance of the German poet Friedrich Schiller, with whom he had a lifelong friendship, and to whom he later dedicated an etching of a heroic landscape (1800). From 1786 to 1789, while resident at the court of the Duke of Sachsen-Meiningen, he explored the Thuringian countryside on foot, making sketches as he went.
 
Johann Christoph Rincklake
Johann Christoph Rincklake
Johann Christoph Rincklake (1764-1813). Date of birth and death 19 October 1764(1764-10-19) and 19 June 1813(1813-06-19) . Location of birth and death, Harsewinkel and Munster.
 
Johann Heinrich Roos
Johann Heinrich Roos
German Baroque Era Painter, 1631-1685 was a German Baroque era painter and etcher. His works are presented in various art museums worldwide.
 
Johann Michael Rottmayr
Johann Michael Rottmayr
Austrian,1654-1730 Austrian painter and draughtsman. He is most notable for large-scale religious and secular decorative schemes, and his career heralded the important 18th-century German contribution to late Baroque and Rococo fresco painting. He was probably taught by his mother, who was a painter of wooden sculpture. Between 1675 and 1687-8 he was in Venice as a pupil and assistant of the Munich artist Johann Carl Loth, whose studio attracted many painters from Austria and southern Germany. It is possible that Rottmayr also visited other Italian cities, in particular Bologna and Rome. He returned to Salzburg in the late 1680s a mature painter and immediately received commissions for panels and frescoes. In 1689 he painted mythological scenes for the Karabinierisaal at the Residenz in Salzburg (in situ); in composition and style these are close to high Baroque models, particularly the work of Pietro da Cortona and Peter Paul Rubens. Such models, as well as the example of Loth, and Venetian painting, had an important influence on Rottmayr's panel paintings of this period, for example the Sacrifice of Iphigenia (c. 1691; Vienna, Belvedere) or St Agnes (1693-5) and St Sebastian (1694; both Passau, Cathedral). In these, the solidity of the figures is emphasized through the use of intense colours. For Rottmayr, however, the rational development of the figures and the composition was less important than the overall effect achieved by the use of colour. Incorrect details of anatomy and perspective found compensation in greater expressiveness, mainly conveyed by gesture and pose. Rottmayr's images are filled with plastic elements, creating a staccato effect. Several very important early commissions paved the way for Rottmayr's move to Vienna in the late 1690s.
 
Johann Moritz Rugendas
Johann Moritz Rugendas
Augsburg 1802-1858 Weilheim an der Teck,was a German painter, famous for his works depicting landscapes and ethnographic subjects in several countries in the Americas, in the first half of the 19th century. Rugendas was born to the seventh generation of a family of noted painters and engravers of Augsburg (he was a grandson of Georg Philipp Rugendas, 1666-1742, a celebrated painter of battles), and studied drawing and engraving with his father, Johann Lorenz Rugendas II (1775-1826). From 1815 to 1817 he studied with Albrecht Adam (1786-1862), and later in the Academy de Arts of Munich, with Lorenzo Quaglio II (1793-1869). Inspired by the artistic work of Thomas Ender (1793-1875) and the travel accounts in the tropics by Austrian naturalists Johann Baptist von Spix (1781-1826) and Carl von Martius (1794-1868), Rugendas arrived in Brazil in 1821, where he was soon hired as an illustrator for Baron von Langsdorff's scientific expedition to Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. Langsdorff was the consul-general of the Russian Empire in Brazil and had a farm in the northern region of Rio de Janeiro, where Rugendas went to live with other members of the expedition. In this capacity, Rugendas visited the Serra da Mantiqueira and the historical towns of Barbacena, Sao Joao del Rei, Mariana, Ouro Preto, Caete, Sabara and Santa Luzia.
 
Johann Nepomuk Rauch
Johann Nepomuk Rauch
(1804 Vienna - 1847 Rome) was a very significant Austrian Biedermeier painter of the 1st half of the 19th century.
 
Johann Rudolf Huber
Johann Rudolf Huber
Johann Rudolf Huber (April 21, 1668; February 24, 1748) was an eminent Swiss portrait artist. Among his famous subjects were Charles III William, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor and Albrecht von Haller .
 
John brett,a.r.a
John brett,a.r.a
1830-1902
 
John brett,ARA
John brett,ARA
1830-1902
 
John callcott horsley,R.A.
John callcott horsley,R.A.
1817-1903 English painter. A nephew of the landscape painter Augustus Wall Callcott, and later Isambard Kingdom Brunel's brother-in-law, he was born into the artistic establishment. He was educated at Henry Sass's Academy and at the Royal Academy. Although he executed two frescoes for the Houses of Parliament (The Spirit of Religion, 1847; London, House of Lords; Satan Wounded by Ithuriel's Lance, 1848; London, Pal. Westminster), his career began with portraiture. Success later came with literary subjects,
 
John Peter Russell
John Peter Russell
(16 June 1858 -22 April 1930) was an Australian impressionist painter. John Peter Russell was born at the Sydney suburb of Darlinghurst, the eldest of four children of John Russell, a Scottish engineer, his wife Charlotte Elizabeth, nee Nicholl, from London. J. P. Russell was a nephew of Sir Peter Nicol Russell. After his father's death J. P. Russell enrolled at the Slade School of Fine Art, University College, London, on 5 January 1881 and studied under Alphonse Legros for three years.Russell then went to Paris to study painting under Fernand Cormon. (His fellow students there included Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Émile Bernard.) Russell was a man of means and having married a beautiful Italian, Mariana Antoinetta Matiocco, he settled at Belle Île off the coast of Brittany, where he established an artists' colony. He would have 11 children with Matiocco, of whom six survived. John Peter Russell: Vincent van Gogh, 1886, Van Gogh Museum, AmsterdamRussell had met Vincent van Gogh in Paris and formed a friendship with him. Van Gogh spoke highly of Russell's work, and after his first summer in Arles in 1888 he sent twelve drawings of his paintings to Russell, to inform him about the progress of his work. Claude Monet often worked with Russell at Belle Île and influenced his style, though it has been said that Monet preferred some of Russell's Belle Île seascapes to his own.
 
John R.Chapin
John R.Chapin
1823 - 1904,was a 19th-century American artist and illustrator, who worked for Harper's Magazine. He was especially noted for a series of illustrations entitled Artist life in the highlands of New Jersey published in April 1860 which gave a realistic depiction of the daily life of miners.
 
John Ritto Penniman
John Ritto Penniman
John Ritto Penniman (1782-1841) was a painter in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He created portraits, landscapes, and allegorical paintings, as well as designs for engravings, such as the official seal of the city of Boston in 1822. He also worked as an assistant to Gilbert Stuart. Penniman died in 1841 in Baltimore.
 
John Robert Cozens
John Robert Cozens
British 1752-1797 ). Painter, draughtsman and printmaker, son of (1) Alexander Cozens. He was taught by his father, and an album by John Robert (Aberystwyth, N. Lib. Wales) indicates that he also learnt to sketch landscape directly from nature. The album contains drawings that record sketching tours to Nacton, near Ipswich, Suffolk (Aug 1768); day trips to the outskirts of London: Greenwich and Blackheath (1768, 1771), Epsom (1768) and Hampstead (1770-71); and a trip to Matlock, Derbys (June 1772). The earliest of these sketches are careful pencil drawings, some later reworked in pen, ink and wash, and there is at least one attempt at added colour. Later drawings are freer, either noting an idea for a composition or recording light and shade with rapid washes of ink over pencil. His father worked mainly in monochrome brown or grey washes, and John Robert earliest exhibits (he exhibited at the Society of Artists every year from 1767 to 1771) were also in this medium.
 
John Roddam Spencer Stanhope
John Roddam Spencer Stanhope
English Pre-Raphaelite Painter, 1829-1908,English painter. The second son of Yorkshire landed gentry, he was educated at Rugby and Christ Church, Oxford. In 1850 he studied in London with G. F. Watts, through whom he entered the artistic circle at Little Holland House, where he met D. G. Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones. In 1857 Rossetti invited him to paint at the Oxford Union (Sir Gawaine and the Damsels at the Fountain), and in 1858 Stanhope occupied a studio next to Rossetti's at Chatham Place, Blackfriars (London), where he painted Thoughts of the Past (London, Tate); a modern-life subject indebted to Rossetti, it shows a prostitute recalling her former life. Stanhope's close friendship with Burne-Jones proved a more decisive influence on his work that, in the 1860s, consisted of dreamlike poetic and mythological subjects often set in quaint, enclosed spaces, as in I Have Trod the Winepress Alone
 
John Rogers
John Rogers
American Sculptor, 1829-1904, He was an American sculptor who produced very popular, relatively inexpensive figurines in the latter 19th century. He became famous for his small genre sculptures, popularly termed "Rogers Groups", which were mass produced in cast plaster. A total of 80,000 copies of almost 80 Rogers Groups were sold across the United States and abroad. At the height of their popularity, Rogers' figurines graced the parlors of homes in the United States and were found as far away as Chile and Australia. The English novelist Charles Reade furnished his home with all the Rogers figurines available to him, and in the Dakota Territory, Lt. Col. George Custer and his wife had one.
 
John Rogers Herbert
John Rogers Herbert
English historical painter and portraitist . British, 1810-1890. was an English painter who is most notable as a precursor of Pre-Raphaelitism. Herbert was born in Maldon, Essex. In 1825, he moved to London to study at the Royal Academy. His early works were influenced by the troubadour style of Richard Parkes Bonington. Subjects showed the influence of Byron and exotic episodes of Venetian history. Haydee (1834) depicted the heroine of Byron's poem Don Juan. Herbert's first major success was The Appointed Hour (1835), depicting a melodramatic scene in which a Venetian man lies murdered at the place appointed for a tryst with his lover. The work became a popular engraving. Herbert followed it with other dramatic subjects such as A Prisoner of Condottieri Freed (1836) and Desdemona asks for Cassio (1838). After he was chosen to paint a portrait of Princess Victoria, before she became queen, he became a favourite portrait painter of the aristocracy. Around this time, he came under the influence of the architect William Payne, a convert to Catholicism. In 1840, Herbert also converted to the Catholic Church. He then painted mainly religious subjects in a style influenced by the artists of the Nazarene movement. Herbert was elected to membership of the Royal Academy in 1846. Herbert's paintings The First Introduction of Christianity into Great Britain (1842) and Our Saviour Subject to his Parents in Nazareth (1847) were the inspiration for the two most important early works of William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais, founders of Pre-Raphaelitism. The two paintings, Hunt's A Converted British Family Sheltering a Christian Missionary and Millais' Christ in the House of His Parents were exhibited at the RA in 1850 to great controversy.
 
John Ruskin
John Ruskin
English Romantic Writer and Painter, 1819-1900 English art critic. Born into a wealthy family, Ruskin was largely educated at home. He was a gifted painter, but the best of his talent went into his writing. His multivolume Modern Painters (1843 C 60), planned as a defense of painter J.M.W. Turner, expanded to become a general survey of art. In Turner he saw "truth to nature" in landscape painting, and he went on to find the same truthfulness in Gothic architecture. His other writings include The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849) and The Stones of Venice (1851 C 53). He was also a defender of the Pre-Raphaelites. In 1869 he was elected Oxford's first Slade professor of fine art; he resigned in 1879 after James McNeill Whistler won a libel suit against him.
 
John Ruskin,HRWS
John Ruskin,HRWS
1819-1900 English academic and critic, who had an enormous influence not only on architectural style but on the ways in which standards of aesthetics were judged. He used an Evangelical and polemical tone in his writings that not only reached a mass audience but received the approval of the Ecclesiologists. Initially encouraged by J. C. Loudon, he contributed to some of Loudon's publications, but his key works date from the late 1840s and 1850s. The Gothic Revival was well established when Ruskin published The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849), which was an immediate success, encapsulating the mood of the period rather than creating new ideas. He argued that architecture should be true, with no hidden structure, no veneers or finishes, and no carvings made by machines, and that Beauty in architecture was only possible if inspired by nature. As exemplars worthy of imitation (he argued that the styles known to Man were quite sufficient, and that no new style was necessary) he selected Pisan Romanesque, early Gothic of Western Italy, Venetian Gothic, and English early Second Pointed as his paradigms. In the choice of the last, the style of the late C13 and early C14, he was echoing A. W. N. Pugin's preferences as well as that of most ecclesiologically minded Gothic Revivalists such as G. G. Scott. The Stones of Venice (1851C3) helped to promote that phase of the Gothic Revival in which Continental (especially Venetian) Gothic predominated. Deane and Woodward's University Museum, Oxford (1854C60), is an example of Venetian or Ruskinian Gothic. In particular, structural polychromy, featuring colour in the material used, rather than applied, was popularized by Ruskin's writings.
 
John Russell
John Russell
English Painter, 1745-1806,English pastellist, painter, writer and astronomer. His father, also called John Russell (1711-1804), was a bookseller, printseller and amateur artist. Russell was educated at Guildford grammar school and won premiums from the Society of Artists for drawings in 1759 and 1760. He was apprenticed to Francis Cotes and set up his own practice in 1767. In 1770 he entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, winning the silver medal for figure drawing. He exhibited at the Society of Artists in 1768 and annually at the Royal Academy from 1769 to 1806. He was elected ARA in 1772 and RA in 1788, when he became Crayon Painter to King George III and to George, Prince of Wales. He painted some rather stilted portraits in oil
 
John Samuel Raven
John Samuel Raven
(1829-1877) was an English landscape painter. Raven was born in Suffolk in 21 Aug. 1829. He was the son of the Rev. Thomas Raven, a clergyman of the Church of England, who had considerable talent as an amateur artist, as may be seen from six water-colour drawings by him in the South Kensington Museum. John Raven was, however, almost entirely self-taught, initially by studying the works of John Crome and John Constable. He exhibited at the Academy as early as 1845, and his works also appeared at the British Institution. This part of his career was focused on views of the area where he lived, near St. Leonards[disambiguation needed]. He at first fell under the influence of the Norwich school, but his maturer works, which show much poetic feeling, bear traces of pre-Raphaelitism. It was his custom to prepare elaborate cartoons for his pictures. He was drowned while bathing at Harlech in 13 June 1877. He married Margaret Sinclair Dunbar in 1869.
 
John William North,ARA
 
johnwilliam waterhouse,R.A.
johnwilliam waterhouse,R.A.
English Pre-Raphaelite Painter, 1849-1917
 
Jonathan Richardson
Jonathan Richardson
English Baroque Era Painter, ca.1664-1745
 
Jorg Ratgeb
Jorg Ratgeb
German Northern Renaissance Painter, ca.1480-1526
 
Jose de Ribera
Jose de Ribera
Spanish Painter and Print engraver , 1591-1652 Information concerning the life and personality of Jusepe de Ribera is sparse. He was born the son of a shoemaker in Jetiva, Valencia Province. He appears to have gone to the city of Valencia while still a boy, but nothing is known of his possible artistic training there. As an adolescent, he traveled to Italy and spent time in Lombardy. Next he was in Parma, from which, it is said, he was driven by the contentious jealousy of local artists. He located himself in Rome until an accumulation of debts forced him to flee. Finally he settled in Naples, where in 1616 he married Caterina Azzolino, the daughter of a painter, by whom he had seven children between the years 1627 and 1636. The Academy of St. Luke in Rome elected Ribera to membership in 1625, and 6 years later the Pope conferred upon him the Order of Christ. It is understandably speculated that Ribera revisited Rome for these events. Being sought after in Naples by the Church and the various Spanish viceroys who ruled there in the name of the Spanish monarchy, he dismissed the idea of returning to his homeland. He was quoted as saying that he was honored and well paid in Naples and that Spain was a cruel stepmother to its own children and a compassionate mother to foreigners. Nevertheless, he generally added his nationality when he signed his works. This practice inspired the Italians to nickname him "the Little Spaniard" (Lo Spagnoletto). The last decade of Ribera's life was one of personal struggle. He suffered from failing health, the taunts of other artists that his fame was "extinct," and difficulty in collecting payments due him. Nevertheless, he kept it from being a tragic defeat by continuing to paint until the very year of his death in Naples. Actually, he was the victim of the local politics and finances. Naples was in the throes of a severe economic depression for which the foreign rulers, the patrons of Ribera, were naturally blamed, and the desperate citizenry was rioting in the streets. It is significant that Ribera continued to receive commissions in such a time, even if there was a dearth of payments. Ribera was inventive in subject matter, ranging through visionary spectacles, biblical themes, genre, portraits, mythological subjects, and portraits of ascetics and penitents.
 
Jose Joaquim da Rocha
Jose Joaquim da Rocha
painted Coronation of Our Lady in 1790
 
Joseph Rusling Meeker
Joseph Rusling Meeker
(1827 -1887 ) - Painter
 
Josip Racic
Josip Racic
(1885 - 1908) was a Croatian painter in the early 20th century. Although he died very young (he was only 23), and his work was mostly created when a student, he is one of the best known of the modern Croatian painters. Today, Račić is regarded as one of the most important representatives of Croatian modern painting. He studied lithography in Zagreb, and 1904 he went to Vienna and Munich, where he studied for a year at the school of the Slovene painter and teacher Anton Ažbe, followed by 3 years at the prestigious Academy of Arts. There, Racic, along with Oskar Herman, Vladimir Becić and Miroslav Kraljević formed the group known as the Croatian School. In 1908, he went to Paris where he painted a series of watercolors and oils depicting Parisian bridges, avenues and parks. He died of a gunshot wound in a Paris hotel room in June 1908, having committed suicide. Josip Račić is one of the founders of modern Croatian art, the first to bring the concept of self-awareness and artistic integrity to his life and works, "pure painting", as he called it. A particular feature of his paintings is the strong dark realms of human spirituality. A retrospective of his work was held in the Modern Gallery in Zagreb and Dubrovnik in 2008-2009, to mark the 100th anniversary of the artist's death.
 
Jozsef Rippl-Ronai
Jozsef Rippl-Ronai
Hungarian Painter, 1861-1927 After his studies at the highschool in Kaposvar he went to study to Budapest, where he got a degree in pharmacy. In 1884 he travels to Munich to study painting at the Academy. 2 years later he gets a grant and that makes him able to move to Paris and study by Munkacsy. In 1888 he meets with the members of Les Nabis and under their influence he paints his first important work The Inn at Pont-Aven, a very deep paining with dark atmosphere. His first big success was the paining My Grandmother (1894). Later he travels back to Hungary, first the critics does not accept him very warmly, but finally he celebrates a success with the exhibition Rippl-Ronai Impressions 1890-1900. He believes that for an artist there is important not only his work, but also how he lives and what he wears. That is why he becomes also a designer (Andrassy dining room and the window-pane in the Ernst Museum). His exhibitions in Frankfurt, Munich and Vienna have got a great success in 1911-1913. He paints his last big work in 1919 (portrait of his friend Zorka) and in 1927 dies in his villa Roma in Kaposvar.
 
Juan Antonio Ribera Y Fernandez
Juan Antonio Ribera Y Fernandez
1779-1860 was a Spanish painter, born at Madrid. He first studied under Francisco Bayeu and enrolled into the Royal Academy of San Fernando, but afterwards went to Paris and become the pupil of Jacques-Louis David. There he painted his Cincinnatus which is now in the Prado Museum. In course of time he went to Rome, and in 1811 was appointed painter to Carlos IV and member of the Academy of St. Luke; and in 1820, honorary member of the Academy of San Fernando. In 1838 he was made professor, and two years afterwards Director of the Prado. He died at Madrid.
 
Juan de Sevilla romero
Juan de Sevilla romero
Spanish , 1643-1695
 
Juan Ribalta
Juan Ribalta
b. 1597, Madrid, d. 1628, Valencia,was a Spanish painter of the Baroque period. Born and died in Valencia. His father, Francisco Ribalta, was a famous painter, active in the style of Caravaggio. Juan's works and style are similar to that of his father.
 
Juan Rizi
Juan Rizi
was a Spanish painter of the Baroque period. He was born in Madrid in 1600. He was a brother of Francisco Rizi, and a pupil of Juan Bautista Mayno. In 1628 he entered the Benedictine Order, studied in Salamanca, and became Abbot of the Medina del Campo in Madrid (?). He painted several works for St. Juan Bautista in Burgos, St. Martin in Madrid, and Monte Cassino in Italy. In the Madrid Museum is a St. Francis of Assisi by him (?). He afterwards went to Rome, where he was made an Archbishop (?) by pope Clement X. He died at Monte Cassino in 1681.
 
Juana Romani
Juana Romani
was an Italian painter, student and model of Ferdinand Roybet and Jean-Jacques Henner. Romani was born in Velletri, near Rome in Italy, but moved with her family to France as a child.
 
Jules Rigo
Jules Rigo
(1810 -1892 ) - Drawer
 
Julio Romero de Torres
Julio Romero de Torres
was a Spanish painter. He was born and died in Cerdoba, Spain, where he lived most of his life. His father was the famous painter Rafael Romero Barros and his mother was Rosario de Torres Delgado. Julio learned about art from his father who was the director, curator and founder of Cerdoba's Museo Provincial de Bellas Artes and an impressionist painter. He took an interest in art at a young age and started studying at the School of Fine Arts when he was 10. He went to Madrid to work and study in 1906. He also traveled all over Europe to study and he picked up a symbolist style, for which he is best known. A museum dedicated to the work of de Torres is situated at Plaza del Potro 1 Cordoba 14002. He spent most of his life living in Cerdoba and Madrid and both places had influences on his paintings. He combined many different styles when he painted because he had many different influences including realism, which was a popular style at that time and impressionism, which he picked up from living in Cerdoba and from his father. While in Cerdoba he became part of the late 19th century intellectual movement that was based on the Royal Academy of Science, Arts and Literature. Julio Romero also won many awards in his lifetime. In 1895 he won an honorable mention at the National Exhibition and later won third place in 1899 and 1904. El Retablo del Amor by Julio Romero de Torres, painted in 1910.In 1914 he relocates to Madrid, where he makes contact with the intellectual and artistic environment of the time together with his brother Enrique. He became a regular at the cafe Nuevo Levante and his paintings began to reflect the philosophical currents of the times, represented by such writers of the times as Ramen del Valle-Inclen and Ruben Dareo. When the war broke out in 1914 Julio Romero fought for the allies as a pilot
 
Julius Ludwig Friedrich Runge
Julius Ludwig Friedrich Runge
painted Morgenstimmung an der Adria mit Fischerbooten und Langustenfischern. Im Vordergrund felsige Kuste in
 
Jusepe de Ribera
Jusepe de Ribera
1591-1652 Spanish Jusepe de Ribera Galleries Jusepe de Ribera (January 12, 1591 - 1652) was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, also known as Jos?? de Ribera in Spanish and as Giuseppe Ribera in Italian. He was also called by his contemporaries and early writers Lo Spagnoletto, or "the Little Spaniard". Ribera was a leading painter of the Spanish school, although his mature work was all done in Italy. In his earlier style, founded sometimes on Caravaggio and sometimes on the wholly diverse method of Correggio, the study of Spanish and Venetian masters can be traced. Along with his massive and predominating shadows, he retained from first to last a great strength in local coloring. His forms, though ordinary and sometimes coarse, are correct; the impression of his works gloomy and startling. He delighted in subjects of horror. In the early 1630s his style changed away from strong contrasts of dark and light to a more diffused and golden lighting. Salvator Rosa and Luca Giordano were his most distinguished followers, who may have been his pupils; others were also Giovanni Do, Enrico Fiammingo, Michelangelo Fracanzani, and Aniello Falcone, who was the first considerable painter of battle-pieces. Among Ribera's principal works could be named "St Januarius Emerging from the Furnace" in the cathedral of Naples; the "Descent from the Cross" in the Certosa, Naples, the "Adoration of the Shepherds" (a late work, 1650), now in the Louvre; the "Martyrdom of St Bartholomew" in the Prado; and the "Pieta" in the sacristy of San Martino, Naples. His mythologic subjects are often as violent as his martyrdoms: for example, "Apollo and Marsyas", with versions in Brussels and Naples, or the "Tityus" in the Prado . The Prado and Louvre contain numbers of his paintings; the National Gallery, London, three. He executed several fine male portraits and a self-portrait. He was an important etcher, the most significant Spanish printmaker before Goya, producing about forty prints, nearly all in the 1620s.
 
Kate Greenaway,RWS,RI
Kate Greenaway,RWS,RI
1846-1901 English painter, illustrator and writer. The daughter of a Fleet Street wood-engraver, John Greenaway (1818-90), she trained at Islington School of Art, Heatherleys Academy and the Slade School of Fine Art, all in London. In 1868 she did her first commercial work, producing Christmas and Valentine cards for Marcus Ward, Belfast.
 
king Charles Bird
king Charles Bird
American portrait Painter, 1785-1862 American painter. He was encouraged to paint by his grandfather, Nathaniel Bird (d 1796), an amateur painter, and took lessons with Samuel King, a portrait painter. In 1800-05 he was apprenticed in New York to Edward Savage, whose curious studio-museum and period of study abroad with Benjamin West impressed him deeply.
 
Koller, Rudolf
Koller, Rudolf
Swiss Painter, 1828-1905 Swiss painter. He studied in Zurich under such artists as Johann Jakob Ulrich before going to D?sseldorf in 1846 to work with Carl Ferdinand Sohn. In 1847 he was in Paris where he shared a studio with Arnold B?cklin. Two years later he went to Munich where he worked with a group of artists called the 'Schweizer', whose leader was Johann Gottfried Steffan. He returned to Zurich in 1851 and painted mainly pastoral landscapes (e.g. Waterfall near Zurich, c. 1851; Zurich, Graph. Samml. Eidgen?ss. Tech. Hochsch.) evoking prevailing romantic sensibilities. His later paintings combine realist subject-matter with a carefully arranged and executed classical composition. He frequently chose rustic farm scenes containing animals, whom he believed represented a dignified and pure image of nature that was to be treated with respect. He was often considered to be the 19th-century counterpart to Paulus Potter whose paintings of animals were emulated at the time. His works are similar to those of Rosa Bonheur, as seen in Cows in the Roman Countryside (1869; Berne, Kstmus.). His most celebrated painting is the St Gotthard Mailcoach (1873; Zurich, Ksthaus), which depicts a coach at full speed attempting to stop suddenly for a herd of cattle obstructing the narrow road. After 1870, problems with his eyesight forced him to paint less, yet even late in life he was still capable of producing such lyrical paintings as Horses at the Drinking Fountain (1890; Le Locle, Mus. B.-A.).
 
Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV
Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV
Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV (June 4, 1884 - August 3, 1940, Bangalore Palace), also known popularly as Nalwadi Krishna Raja Wadiyar was the ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Mysore from 1902 until his death in 1940. He is regarded as one of the most celebrated rulers among the Indian States when India was still under British rule. At the time of his death, he was also one of the world's wealthiest men, with a personal fortune estimated in 1940 to be worth $400 million which would be equivalent to $56 billion in 2010 prices.
 
Laurits Andersen Ring
Laurits Andersen Ring
Danish, 1854-1933 Laurits Andersen Ring (1854-1933) was one of the foremost painters of Danish symbolism. He was born as Laurits Andersen in the village Ring in southern Zealand. In 1881 he the took the name of his birth place, and was since known as L.A. Ring. For a while, he lived at Baldersbronde near Hedehusene in the old school building, which was later to be the home of another painter, Ludvig Find. Ring has produced several paintings from these towns. As a painter, he never distanced himself from his humble origin, but rather made it his dominant theme. Most of his paintings depict the village life and landscapes of southern Zealand from Præsto to Nestved. There are several examples of his work at practically every Danish art museum including the Hirschsprung Collection in Copenhagen. He was married on July 25, 1896 to fellow painter Sigrid Kahler, who was the daughter of ceramic artist Herman Kahler.
 

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